Vickers Microhardness Test
This test method covers the determination of the Vickers hardness of metallic materials, using applied forces of 100 grams to 10 kg.
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The Vickers harness test is an indentation hardness test using a calibrated machine to force a square-based pyramidal diamond indenter having specified face angle, under a predetermined force, into the surface of the material under test and to measure the diagonals of the resulting impression after the removal of the force.
The Vickers hardness number, HV, is a number related to the applied force and the surface area of the permanent impression made by a square-based pyramidal diamond indenter. The Vickers hardness number (HV) is computed from the following equation:
HV = P/ As = 2P sin (α/2)/d2 = 1854.4 P1/ d12
where, P = load, kgf,
P1 = load, gf,
As = surface area of indentation, mm2,
d = mean diagonal of indentation, mm,
d1= mean diagonal of indentation, μm, and
α = face angle of indenter = 136°
Equipment for the Vickers hardness testing consists of a testing machine which supports the specimen and permits the indenter and the specimen to be brought into contact gradually and smoothly under a predetermined load, which is applied during a specified time. A measuring microscope is mounted on the machine in such a manner that the impression in the specimen may be readily located in the optical field.