Charpy Impact or Toughness Testing
A Charpy V-notch impact test, also known as toughness testing, is a dynamic test in which a notched specimen is struck and broken by a single blow of a freely swinging pendulum of a Charpy impact machine.
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The Charpy impact test procedure can be summarized as follows:
(a) the impact test specimen is removed from its cooling medium and positioned on the specimen supports;
(b) the pendulum is released; and,
(c) the specimen is broken within 5 seconds after removal from the medium.
Since the pendulum is released from a fixed height and the mass of the pendulum are known, the energy of the blow is predetermined.
The other principal feature of the Charpy impact machine is a fixture designed to support an impact test specimen is a simple beam at a precise location. The fixture is arranged so that the notched face of the specimen is vertical. The pendulum strikes the other vertical face directly opposite to the notch.
The measured impact test values may be the energy absorbed, percent shear fracture, the lateral expansion opposite the notch, or a combination thereof.